Current assessment of Ηemospermia

Konstantinos Stamatiou, Gianpaolo Perletti, Vittorio Magri, Hippocrates Moschouris, Raffi Avakian, Nectaria Rekleiti, Alberto Trinchieri

Abstract


Introduction/Aim: Hemospermia is defined as the presence
of red blood cells in the semen. Although hemospermia is a
rare sign, its presence is annoying and worrisome for patients.
In addition, it is often overlooked by healthcare professionals
due to its short duration and to its presumably benign origin.
Currently, there are no set guidelines regarding the evaluation
of hemospermia that would allow a definitive diagnosis, and
only limited evidence is available. The aim of this review is to
investigate the current trends on the assessment and management
of hemospermia.
Materials and Methods: The present review was based on a
search in the relevant Greek and international bibliography.
The PubMed database was searched for bibliographic data.
The keywords used were "hemospermia" in combination with
"etiology" and "treatment". Search was done by title, abstract
or keywords.
Results: The actual incidence of hemospermia is unknown;
however, it appears to be more common in men under the age
of 40. It is usually a sign of short duration and is self-limited;
hence, it often does not require further evaluation or treatment.
When evaluated in men younger than 40 without risk factors,
hemospermia is usually associated with benign causes and in
the majority of cases responds well to treatment. In patients
with risk factors and/or associated symptoms, hemospermia
usually recurs and may not respond to treatment. In men over
40 years of age with persistent or recurrent hemospermia,
systemic diseases and malignant conditions associated with
hematospermia may be present. In rare cases hemospermia
may be the only symptom of uncommon diseases.
Conclusions: Hemospermia has been linked with a variety
of conditions. in-depth investigation may be intricate, and it
should be performed in

Keywords


Hemospermia;cancer;risk factors

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19264/hj.v31i1.259