Prone percutaneous nephrolithotripsy: where do we stand?

Panagiotis Mourmouris, Nikolaos Kostakopoulos, Lazaros Lazarou, Alexandros Pinitas, Andreas Skolarikos

Abstract


Since the development and first use of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy
back in the 70s, new technologies have emerged, instrumentation has
been optimized and novel techniques of imaging have been implemented
transforming this old procedure to a contemporary therapeutic tool of
everyday clinical practice. All the above allowed urological surgeons to
develop many variations and establish percutaneous nephrolithotripsy
as the gold standard procedure for the treatment of patient with large
or otherwise complex stones. In this study we review the literature and
we discuss the developments in each one of the steps of this procedure
and main goal the optimization of this old but efficacious procedure.

Keywords


percutaneous nephrolithtripsy;urinary stones;prone

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19264/hj.v30i4.251