From candlelight to digital imaging cystoscopy: A comprehensive review of bladder’s endoscopy evolution

Kostas Chondros, Johann Menard, Pierre-Emmanuel Bryckaert, Eric Mandron, Nicolas Hoarau

Abstract


The birth of modern cystoscopy begun two centuries ago after the initial invention of Bozzini’s prototype urethroscope that used candlelight. Since then cystoscopy has been submitted to several improvements ranging from practical instrumentation modifications to advanced light source systems and enhanced image quality. Visualization melioration of the bladder used technological innovations, such as fiber-optics, and led to flexible endoscopes with digital imaging. The last two decades, systems with image enhancement capabilities have emerged in an effort to improve endoscopic vision and detection of bladder pathological lesions. The present review includes the main hallmarks of the historic evolution of today’s cystoscopes, the current endoscopic systems and the future trends in bladder’s visualization.


Keywords


Cystoscopy; bladder endoscopy; fiberscopes; digital imaging; image enhancement systems; photodynamic diagnosis; narrow-band imaging

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19264/hj.v29i2.167